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THE MAMMOTH BOOK OF

SPACE EXPLORATION AND DISASTERS

Edited by Richard Russell Lawrence

Abbreviations

Chapter 1

A-4: Aggregate 4, the prototype German rocket

LOX: Liquid Oxygen

NACA: National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics

NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

V-2: Vergeltungswaffe 2 (Vengeance weapon 2)

Chapter 2

ASCS: Automatic Stabilization and Control System

EOR: Earth Orbit Rendezvous

G: Gravity, normal gravity on earth is IG

ICBM: Intercontinental Ballistic Missile

JPL: Jet Propulsion Laboratory

LOR: Lunar Orbit Rendezvous

LOS: Loss Of Signal

LOX: Liquid Oxygen

MA: Mercury-Atlas

MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MPT: Mercury Procedures Trainer

M-R: Mercury Redstone

Q: Aerodynamic stress

SARAH: Search and Rescue and Homing

SECO: Sustainer Engine Cutoff

V-1: Vergeltungswaffe 1 (Vengeance weapon 1)

VfR: Verein fuer Raumschiffahrt (Space Travel Association)

USSR: Union of Socialist Soviet Republics

Chapter 3

ALSEP: Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package

AM: Airlock Module

AMU: Astronaut Manoeuvring Unit

ATDA: Augmented Target Docking Adapter

Capcom: Capsule communicator

CONTROL: Lunar Module flight control officer

CSM: Command Service Module

DOI: Descent orbit insertion

DSKY: Display & Keyboard

EECOM: Electrical & Environmental command officer

EGIL: Flight Controller for electrical and environmental systems at the launch

EST: Eastern Standard Time

EVA: Extra Vehicular Activity or spacewalking

FDI: powered descent initiation

FIDO: Flight dynamics officer

GET: Ground Elapsed Time

GNC: Guidance, Navigation and Control

GUIDO: Guidance officer

INCO: Instrument & Communications Officer

J-2: engine of the Saturn booster S-IVB third stage

LEM: Lunar Excursion Module

LLRV: Lunar Landing Research Vehicle

LM: Lunar Module

LOI: Lunar orbit insertion

LRL: Lunar Receiving Laboratory

MDA: Multiple Docking Adapter

MET: Modularised Equipment Transporter

PC+2: Two hours after Perycynthion (the closest point to the far side of the moon)

PLS S: portable life support system

PTC: Passive Thermal Control

RETRO: Retrofire officer

S1C: a variant of the Saturn booster (first stage)

SII: Saturn booster (second stage)

S-IVB: a variant of the Saturn booster (third stage)

S-WB: the Saturn stage which contained the LEM

SCE: Signal Condition Equipment

SM JETT: Service Module Jettison (switch)

SPS: Service Propulsion System (the CSM’s engine)

SWS: Saturn Workshop (Skylab)

TEI: TransEarth Injection

TELMU: Telemetry, electrical, EVA, mobility unit officer

Chapter 4

BPS: Automatic docking equipment on board MIR’s unmanned supply vessels

CCD: Charged Coupled Detectors

COSTAR: Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement

DSD: a Depressurization Sensor

FA: First Aid

HST: Hubble Space Telescope

ISS: International Space Station

IVA: Intra Vehicular Activity (a spacewalk inside a depressurized space craft)

KURS: A radar/guidance system used when docking spaceships to space stations

LiOH: solid cylinders of Lithium hydroxide which filter CO2 out of the air

MOD: Missions Operations Directive

NCS: NICMOS Cooling System

OMS: Orbital Maneuvering System

OPM: Optical Properties Monitor

PS: Payload Specialist

SAMS: calibration device aboard MIR, used to study vibrations and structural stress

SEP: calibration of power levels remaining in MIR’s batteries

SFOG: Solid Fuel Oxygen Generator

SUD: MIR’s motion-control system

TDRS: Tracking and Data Relay Satellite

TORU A: remote control system for docking unmanned spaceships

TsUP: Soviet then Russian Mission Control

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