some one to guard the store and some one to perform such necessary operations as imply the need of shelter.[22] Shelter, for instance, is needed for the rearing of infant children; shelter is needed for the various processes of converting the fruits of earth into food, and in like manner for the fabrication of clothing out of wool.

[22] Or, 'works which call for shelter.'

'But whereas both of these, the indoor and the outdoor occupations alike, demand new toil and new attention, to meet the case,' I added, 'God made provision[23] from the first by shaping, as it seems to me, the woman's nature for indoor and the man's for outdoor occupations. Man's body and soul He furnished with a greater capacity for enduring heat and cold, wayfaring and military marches; or, to repeat, He laid upon his shoulders the outdoor works.

[23] 'Straightway from the moment of birth provided.' Cf. (Aristot.) 'Oecon.' i. 3, a work based upon or at any rate following the lines of Xenophon's treatise.

'While in creating the body of woman with less capacity for these things,' I continued, 'God would seem to have imposed on her the indoor works; and knowing that He had implanted in the woman and imposed upon her the nurture of new-born babies, He endowed her with a larger share of affection for the new-born child than He bestowed upon man.[24] And since He imposed on woman the guardianship of the things imported from without, God, in His wisdom, perceiving that a fearful spirit was no detriment to guardianship,[25] endowed the woman with a larger measure of timidity than He bestowed on man. Knowing further that he to whom the outdoor works belonged would need to defend them against malign attack, He endowed the man in turn with a larger share of courage.

[24] {edasato}, 'Cyrop.' IV. ii. 43.

[25] Cf. 'Hipparch,' vii. 7; Aristot. 'Pol.' iii. 2; 'Oecon.' iii.

'And seeing that both alike feel the need of giving and receiving, He set down memory and carefulness between them for their common use,[26] so that you would find it hard to determine which of the two, the male or the female, has the larger share of these. So, too, God set down between them for their common use the gift of self-control, where needed, adding only to that one of the twain, whether man or woman, which should prove the better, the power to be rewarded with a larger share of this perfection. And for the very reason that their natures are not alike adapted to like ends, they stand in greater need of one another; and the married couple is made more useful to itself, the one fulfilling what the other lacks.[27]

[26] Or, 'He bestowed memory and carefulness as the common heritage of both.'

[27] Or, 'the pair discovers the advantage of duality; the one being strong wherein the other is defective.'

'Now, being well aware of this, my wife,' I added, 'and knowing well what things are laid upon us twain by God Himself, must we not strive to perform, each in the best way possible, our respective duties? Law, too, gives her consent--law and the usage of mankind, by sanctioning the wedlock of man and wife; and just as God ordained them to be partners in their children, so the law establishes their common ownership of house and estate. Custom, moreover, proclaims as beautiful those excellences of man and woman with which God gifted them at birth.[28] Thus for a woman to bide tranquilly at home rather than roam aborad is no dishonour; but for a man to remain indoors, instead of devoting himself to outdoor pursuits, is a thing discreditable. But if a man does things contrary to the nature given him by God, the chances are,[29] such insubordination escapes not the eye of Heaven: he pays the penalty, whether of neglecting his own works, or of performing those appropriate to woman.'[30]

[28] Or, 'with approving fingers stamps as noble those diverse faculties, those superiorities in either sex which God created in them. Thus for the womean to remain indoors is nobler than to gad about abroad.' {ta kala . . .; kallion . . . aiskhion . . .}-- These words, wich their significant Hellenic connotation, suffer cruelly in translation.

[29] Or, 'maybe in some respect this violation of the order of things, this lack of discpline on his part.' Cf. 'Cyrop.' VII. ii. 6.

[30] Or, 'the works of his wife.' For the sentiment cf. Soph. 'Oed. Col.' 337 foll.; Herod. ii. 35.

I added: 'Just such works, if I mistake not, that same queen-bee we spoke of labours hard to perform, like yours, my wife, enjoined upon her by God Himself.'

'And what sort of works are these?' she asked; 'what has the queen-bee to do that she seems so like myself, or I like her in what I have to do?'

'Why,' I answered, 'she too stays in the hive and suffers not the other bees to idle. Those whose duty it is to work outside she sends forth to their labours; and all that each of them brings in, she notes and receives and stores against the day of need; but when the season for use has come, she distributes a just share to each. Again, it is she who presides over the fabric of choicely-woven cells within. She looks to it that warp and woof are wrought with speed and beauty. Under her guardian eye the brood of young[31] is nursed and reared; but when the days of rearing are past and the young bees are ripe for work, she sends them out as colonists with one of the seed royal [32] to be their leader.'

[31] Or, 'the growing progeny is reared to maturity.'

[32] Or, 'royal lineage,' reading {ton epigonon} (emend. H. Estienne); or if the vulg. {ton epomenon}, 'with some leader of the host' (lit. of his followers). So Breitenbach.

'Shall I then have to do these things?' asked my wife.

'Yes,' I answered, 'you will need in the same way to stay indoors, despatching to their toils without those of your domestics whose work lies there. Over those whose appointed tasks are wrought indoors, it will be your duty to preside; yours to receive the stuffs brought in; yours to apportion part for daily use, and yours to make provision for the rest, to guard and garner it so that the outgoings destined for a year may not be expended in a month. It will be your duty, when the wools are introduced, to see that clothing is made for those who need; your duty also to see that the dried corn is rendered fit and serviceable for food.

'There is just one of all these occupations which devolve upon you,' I added, 'you may not find so altogether pleasing. Should any one of our household fall sick, it will be your care to see and tend them to the recovery of their health.'

'Nay,' she answered, 'that will be my pleasantest of tasks, if careful nursing may touch the springs of gratitude and leave them friendlier than before.'

And I (continued Ischomachus) was struck with admiration at her answer, and replied: 'Think you, my wife, it is through some such traits of forethought seen in their mistress-leader that the hearts of bees are won, and they are so loyally affectioned towards her that, if ever she abandon her hive, not one of them will dream of being left behind;[33] but one and all must follow her.'

[33] Al. 'will suffer her to be forsaken.'

And my wife made answer to me: 'It would much astonish me (said she) did not these leader's works, you speak of, point to you rather than myself. Methinks mine would be a pretty[34] guardianship and distribution of things indoors without your provident care to see that the importations from without were duly made.'

[34] Or, 'ridiculous.'

'Just so,' I answered, 'and mine would be a pretty[35] importation if there were no one to guard what I imported. Do you not see,' I added, 'how pitiful is the case of those unfortunates who pour water in their sieves for ever, as the story goes,[36] and labour but in vain?'

[35] 'As laughable an importation.'

[36] Or, 'how pitiful their case, condemned, as the saying goes, to pour water into a sieve.' Lit. 'filling a bucket bored with holes.' Cf. Aristot. 'Oec.' i. 6; and for the Danaids, see Ovid. 'Met.' iv. 462; Hor. 'Carm.' iii. 11. 25; Lucr. iii. 937; Plaut. 'Pseud.' 369. Cp. Coleridge:

Work without hope draws nectar in a sieve, And hope without an object cannot live.

'Pitiful enough, poor souls,' she answered, 'if that is what they do.'

'But there are other cares, you know, and occupations,' I answered, 'which are yours by right, and these you will find agreeable. This, for instance, to take some maiden who knows naught of carding wool and to make her proficient in the art, doubling her usefulness; or to receive another quite ignorant of housekeeping or of service, and to render her skilful, loyal, serviceable, till she is worth her weight in gold; or again, when occasion serves, you have it in your power to requite by kindness the well-behaved whose presence is a blessing to your house; or maybe to chasten the bad character, should such an one appear. But the greatest joy of all will be to prove yourself my better; to make me your faithful follower; knowing no dread lest as the years advance you should decline in honour in your household, but rather trusting that, though your hair turn gray, yet, in proportion as you come to be a better helpmate to myself and to the children, a better guardian of our home, so will your honour increase throughout the household as mistress, wife, and mother, daily more dearly prized. Since,' I added, 'it is not through excellence of

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