order written, or in the order he or she chooses if the choices aren’t ordered.

104. Numbers and Symbols

104.1. The Magic game uses only natural numbers. You can’t choose a fractional number, deal fractional damage, and so on. When a spell or ability could generate a fractional number, the spell or ability will tell you whether to round up or down.

104.2. If a creature’s power or toughness, a mana cost, a player’s life total, or an amount of damage would be less than 0, it’s treated as 0 for all purposes except changing that total. If anything needs to use a number that can’t be determined, it uses 0 instead.

Example: If a 3/3 creature gets -5/-0, it deals 0 damage in combat. But to raise its power back to 1, you’d have to give it +3/+0 (3 minus 5 plus 3 is 1).

Example: If you control no permanents, the “highest converted mana cost among permanents you control” can’t be determined, so 0 is used instead.

104.3. The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, {X}, {Y}, and {Z}; the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on; the hybrid symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}; and the snow symbol {S}.

104.3a Each of the colored mana symbols represents one colored mana: {W} is white, {U} blue, {B} black, {R} red, and {G} green.

104.3b Numeral symbols (such as {1}) are generic mana costs and represent an amount of mana that can be paid with any color of, or colorless, mana.

104.3c The symbols {X}, {Y}, and {Z} represent unspecified amounts of mana; when playing a spell or activated ability with {X}, {Y}, or {Z} in its cost, its controller decides the value of that variable.

104.3d Numeral symbols (such as {1}) and variable symbols (such as {X}) can also represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or ability that reads “add [mana symbol] to your mana pool” or something similar.

104.3e The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder when a spell or activated ability costs nothing to play. A spell or ability whose cost is {0} must still be played the same way as one with a cost greater than zero; it won’t play itself automatically.

104.3f Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid with one of two colors: {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue.

Example: {G/W}{G/W} can be paid by spending {G}{G}, {G}{W}, or {W} {W}.

104.3g If an effect would add one mana represented by a hybrid mana symbol to a player’s mana pool, that player chooses either of that symbol’s colors and adds one mana of that color to his or her mana pool.

104.3h The snow mana symbol {S} represents a cost that can be paid with one mana produced by a snow permanent. This is a generic mana cost that can be paid with any color of, or colorless, mana. Effects that reduce the amount of generic mana you pay don’t affect {S} costs.

104.4. The tap symbol is {T}. The tap symbol in an activation cost means “Tap this permanent.” A permanent that’s already tapped can’t be tapped again to pay the cost. Creatures that haven’t been under a player’s control continuously since the beginning of his or her most recent turn can’t use any ability with the tap symbol in the cost. See rule 212.3d.

104.5. A tombstone icon appears to the left of the name of many Odyssey™ block cards with abilities that are relevant in a player’s graveyard. The purpose of the icon is to make those cards stand out when they’re in a graveyard. This icon has no effect on game play.

2. Parts of the Game

200. General

200.1. When a rule or text on a card refers to a “card,” it means a Magic card with a Magic card front and the Magic card back. Tokens aren’t considered cards- even a card that represents a token isn’t considered a card for rules purposes.

200.1a A card’s owner is the player who started the game with it in his or her deck or, for cards that didn’t start the game in a player’s deck, the player who brought the card into the game.

200.2. Use the Oracle™ card reference when determining a card’s wording. A card’s Oracle text can be found using the Gatherer card database at http://gatherer.wizards.com.

200.3. A player is one of the people in the game. The active player is the player whose turn it is. The other players are nonactive players.

200.3a In a multiplayer game between teams, a player’s teammates are the other players on his or her team, and the player’s opponents are all players not on his or her team.

200.4. A token is a marker used to represent any permanent that isn’t represented by a card. (See rule 216, “Tokens.”)

200.4a A token’s owner is the player who controlled the spell or ability that put it into play. A token’s controller is the player who put it into play.

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