200.5. A spell is a card, or copy of a spell or card, that’s on the stack. (See rule 213, “Spells.”)

200.5a A spell’s owner is the same as the owner of the card that represents it. A spell’s controller is the player who played it.

200.6. A permanent is a card or token that’s in play. (See rule 214, “Permanents.”)

200.6a A nontoken permanent’s owner is the same as the owner of the card that represents it. A permanent’s controller is the player who put it into play.

200.7. An ability can be one of two things. First, it can be an activated or triggered ability on the stack. Second, it can be text on an object that explains what the object does. (See rule 402, “Abilities,” and section 4, “Spells, Abilities, and Effects.”)

200.7a The owner of an ability on the stack is the player who controlled its source when it was played or triggered. The controller of an ability on the stack is the player who played the ability, or the player who controlled the ability’s source when it triggered.

200.8. An object is an ability on the stack, a card, a copy of a card, a token, a spell, or a permanent. The term “object” is used in these rules when a rule applies to abilities on the stack, cards, tokens, spells, and permanents. Combat damage on the stack is also an object, although many uses of the term “object” in these rules don’t apply to it.

200.9. If a spell or ability uses a type or subtype without the word “card,” “spell,” or “source,” it means a permanent of that type in play.

200.9a If a spell or ability uses a type, supertype, or subtype in conjunction with the word “card” and the name of a zone, it means a card with that type in the stated zone.

200.9b If a spell or ability uses a type, supertype, or subtype in conjunction with the word “spell,” it means a spell of that type on the stack.

200.9c If a spell or ability uses a type, supertype, or subtype in conjunction with the word “source,” it means a source of that type-either a source of an ability or a source of damage. See rule 419.8 “Sources of Damage.”

200.10. A counter is a marker placed on an object or player, either modifying its characteristics or interacting with an ability. A counter is not a token, and a token is not a counter. A +X/+Y counter on a permanent, where X and Y are numbers, adds X to that permanent’s power and Y to that permanent’s toughness. Similarly, -X/-Y counters subtract from power and toughness. Counters with the same name or description are interchangeable.

201. Characteristics

201.1. The parts of a card are name, mana cost, illustration, type line, expansion symbol, text box, power and toughness, illustration credit, legal text, and collector number. Some cards may have more than one of any or all of these parts.

201.2. An object’s characteristics are name, mana cost, color, type, subtype, supertype, expansion symbol, rules text, abilities, power, and toughness. Objects can have some or all of these characteristics. Any other information about an object isn’t a characteristic. For example, characteristics don’t include whether a permanent is tapped, a spell’s target, an object’s owner or controller, what an Aura enchants, and so on.

202. Name

202.1. The name of a card is printed on its upper left corner.

202.2. Text that refers to the object it’s on by name means just that particular object and not any other duplicates of it, regardless of any name changes caused by game effects.

202.2a If an ability of an object uses a phrase such as “this [something]” to identify an object, where [something] is a characteristic, it is referring to that particular object, even if it isn’t the appropriate characteristic at the time.

Example: An ability reads “Target creature gets +2/+2 until end of turn. Destroy that creature at end of turn.” The ability will destroy the object it gave +2/+2 at the end of the turn, even if that object isn’t a creature anymore.

202.2b If an ability of an object grants to another object an ability that refers to the first object by name, the name refers only to the object whose ability grants that ability, not to any other object with the same name.

Example: Saproling Burst has an ability that reads “Remove a fade counter from Saproling Burst: Put a green Saproling creature token into play. It has ‘This creature’s power and toughness are each equal to the number of fade counters on Saproling Burst.’” The ability granted to the token only looks at the Saproling Burst that created the token, not at any other Saproling Burst in play.

202.3. Two cards have the same name if the English versions of their names are identical, regardless of anything else printed on the cards.

203. Mana Cost and Color

203.1. The mana cost of a card is indicated by mana symbols printed on its upper right corner. If a card has no mana symbols printed in its upper right corner, it has no mana cost. Paying an object’s mana cost requires matching the color of any colored mana symbols as well as paying the generic mana indicated in the cost.

203.1a Lands normally have no mana cost. Tokens have no mana cost unless the effect that creates them specifies otherwise. A copy of an object copies that object’s mana cost.

203.2. An object is the color or colors of the mana symbols in its mana cost, regardless of the color of its frame.

203.2a Objects with no colored mana symbols in their mana costs are colorless.

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