epikheiresas, o ton eudaimonestaton ergon esti.} See Prof. Jebb's

note to Theophr. 'Ch.' vi. p. 197, note 16.

[18] Lit. 'if they mount.'

[19] Like that of Pheidippides in the play; see Aristoph. 'Clouds,' 23

foll. And for the price of horses, ranging from 3 minas (= L12

circa) for a common horse, or 12 minas (say L50) for a good saddle

or race-horse, up to the extravagant sum of 13 talents (say 3000

guineas) given for 'Bucephalus,' see Boeckh, 'P. E. A.' (Eng. tr.)

p. 74. Cf. Isaeus, 55. 22; 88. 17; Lys. 'de Maled.' 133. 10; Aul.

Gell. 'Noct. Att.' v. 2.

To come to the existing body of knights,[20] it would tend,[21] I think, to better rearing and more careful treatment of their horses if the senate issued a formal notice that for the future twice the amount of drill will be required, and that any horse unable to keep up will be rejected. And so, too, with regard to vicious horses, I should like to see an edict promulgated to the effect that all such animals will be rejected. This threat would stimulate the owners of such brutes to part with them by sale, and, what is more, to exercise discretion at the time of purchase. So, too, it would be a good thing if the same threat of rejection were made to include horses that kick on the exercising-grounds, since it is impossible to keep such animals in the ranks; and in case of an advance against a hostile force at any point,[22] they must perforce trail in the rear, so that, thanks to the vice of the animal which he bestrides, the trooper himself is rendered useless.

[20] Or, 'As regards those who are actually serving in the cavalry.'

For a plausible emend. of this passage (S. 13) see Courier ('Notes

sur le texte,' p. 54); L. Dind. ad loc.

[21] Lit. 'the senate might incite to . . .'

[22] Reading {ean}, or if {kan} with the MSS., trans. 'even in case of

an advance against the enemy.'

With a view to strengthening the horses' feet: if any one has an easier or more simple treatment to suggest, by all means let it be adopted; but for myself, as the result of experience, I maintain that the proper course is to lay down a loose layer of cobbles from the road, a pound or so in weight, on which the horse should be put to stand, when taken from the manger to be groomed.[23] The point is, that the horse will keep perpetually moving first one foot and then another on the stones, whilst being rubbed down or simply because he is fidgeted by flies. Let any one try the experiment, and, I venture to predict, not only will he come to trust my guidance, but he will see his horse's hoofs grow just as round and solid as the cobbles.

[23] See below, 'Horse.' iv. 4. The Greeks did not 'shoe' their


Assuming, then, your horses are all that horses ought to be, how is the trooper to attain a like degree of excellence? To that question I will now address myself. The art of leaping on to horseback is one which we would fain persuade the youthful members of the corps to learn themselves; though, if you choose to give them an instructor,[24] all the greater credit to yourself. And as to the older men you cannot do better than accustom them to mount, or rather to be hoisted up by aid of some one, Persian fashion.[25]

[24] Like Pheidon, in the fragment of Mnesimachus's play 'The Breeder

of Horses,' ap. Athen. See Courier, ib. p. 55.

[25] See 'Anab.' IV. iv. 4; 'Horsemanship,' vi. 12.

With a view to keeping a firm seat on every sort of ground, it may be perhaps be thought a little irksome to be perpetually marching out, when there is no war;[26] but all the same, I would have you call your men together and impress upon them the need to train themselves, when they ride into the country to their farms, or elsewhere, by leaving the high road and galloping at a round pace on ground of every description.[27] This method will be quite as beneficial to them as the regular march out, and at the same time not produce the same sense of tedium. You may find it useful also to remind them that the state on her side is quite willing to expend a sum of nearly forty talents [28] yearly, so that in the event of war she may not have to look about for cavalry, but have a thoroughly efficient force to hand for active service. Let these ideas be once instilled into their minds, and, mark my words, your trooper will fall with zest to practising horsemanship, so that if ever the flame of war burst out he may not be forced to enter the lists a raw recruit, unskilled to fight for fame and fatherland or even life itself.

[26] In the piping days of peace.

[27] See 'Econ.' xi. 17. Cf. Theophr. 'Ch.' viii. 'The Late Learner':

{kai eis agron eph' ippou allotriou katakhoumenos ama meletan

ippazesthai, kai peson ten kephalon kateagenai}, 'Riding into the

country on another's horse, he will practise his horsemanship by

the way, and falling, will break his head' (Jebb).

[28] = L10,000 circa. See Boeckh, op. cit. p. 251.

It would be no bad thing either, to forewarn your troopers that one day you will take them out yourself for a long march, and lead them across country over every kind of ground. Again, whilst practising the evolutions of the rival cavalry display,[29] it will be well to gallop out at one time to one district and again to another. Both men and horses will be benefited.

[29] Lit. 'the anthippasia.' See iii. 11, and 'Horsemanship,' viii.


Next, as to hurling the javelin from horseback, the best way to secure as wide a practice of the art as possible, it strikes me, would be to issue an order to your phylarchs that it will be their duty to put themselves at the head of the marksmen of several tribes, and to ride out to the butts for practice. In this way a spirit of emulation will be roused-the several officers will, no doubt, be eager to turn out as many marksmen as they can to aid the state. [30]

[30] On competition cf. 'Cyrop.' II. i. 22, and our author passim.

And so too, to ensure that splendour of accoutrement which the force requires,[31] the greatest help may once again be looked for from the phylarchs; let these officers but be persuaded that from the public point of view the splendid appearance of their squadrons[32] will confer a title to distinction far higher than that of any personal equipment. Nor is it reasonable to suppose that they will be deaf to such an argument, since the very desire to hold the office of phylarch itself proclaims a soul alive to honour and ambition. And what is more, they have it in their power, in accordance with the actual provisions of the law, to equip their men without the outlay of a single penny, by enforcing that self-equipment out of pay[33] which the law prescribes.

[31] Or, 'a beauty of equipment, worthy of our knights.' Cf. Aristoph.

'Lysistr.' 561, and a fragment of 'The Knights,' of Antiphanes,

ap. Athen. 503 B, {pant' 'Amaltheias keras}. See 'Hiero,' ix. 6;

'Horse.' xi. 10.

[32] Lit. 'tribes,' {phulai} (each of the ten tribes contributing

about eighty men, or, as we might say, a squadron).

[33] i.e. the {katastasis}, 'allowance,' so technically called. Cf.

Lys. 'for Mantitheos'; Jebb, 'Att. Or.' i. 246; Boeckh, 'P. E. A.'

II. xxi. p. 263; K. F. Hermann, 152, 19; Martin, op. cit. p. 341.

But to proceed. In order to create a spirit of obedience in your subordinates, you have two formidable instruments;[34] as a matter of plain reason you can show them what a host of blessings the word discipline implies; and as a matter of hard fact you can, within the limits of the law, enable the well-disciplined to reap advantage, while the undisciplined are made to feel the pinch at every turn.

[34] 'The one theoretic, the other practical.'

But if you would rouse the emulation of your phylarchs, if you would stir in each a personal ambition to appear at the head of his own squadron in all ways splendidly appointed, the best incentive will be your personal example. You must see to it that your own bodyguard[35] are decked with choice accoutrement and arms; you must enforce on them the need to practise shooting pertinaciously; you must expound to them the theory of the javelin, yourself an adept in the art through constant training.[36]

[35] Techn. {prodromoi}, possibly = the Hippotoxotai, or corps of 200

mounted archers-Scythians; cf. 'Mem.' III. iii. 11. Or, probably,

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