'mounted skirmishers,' distinct from the {ippotexotai}. Cf.

Arrian, 'An.' i. 12. 7. See Aristot. 'Ath. Pol.' 49. 5.

[36] Reading as vulg. {eisegoio}, or if with L. D. {egoio} (cf. above,

S. 21), trans. 'you must lead them out to the butts yourself.'

Lastly, were it possible to institute and offer prizes to the several tribal squadrons in reward for every excellence of knighthood known to custom in the public spectacles of our city, we have here, I think, an incentive which will appeal to the ambition of every true Athenian. How small, in the like case of our choruses, the prizes offered, and yet how great the labour and how vast the sums expended![37] But we must discover umpires of such high order that to win their verdict will be as precious to the victor as victory itself.

[37] See 'Hell.' III. iv. 15; 'Hiero,' ix. 3; 'Cyrop.' I. vi. 18;

Martin, op. cit. p. 260 f.


Given, then, that your troopers are thoroughly trained in all the above particulars, it is necessary, I presume, that they should further be instructed in a type of evolution the effect of which will show itself not only in the splendour of the great processions[1] in honour of the gods, but in the manouvres of the exercising-ground; in the valorous onslaught of real battle when occasion calls; and in the ease with which whole regiments will prosecute their march, or cross a river, or thread a defile without the slightest symptom of confusion. What this formation is- essential, at least in my opinion, to the noblest execution of their several duties-I will now, without delay, endeavour to explain.[2]

[1] e.g. the Panathenaic, as depicted on the frieze of the Parthenon.

[2] Or, 'what this best order is, the adoption of which will give

these several features fair accomplishment, I will without further

pause set forth.'

We take as our basis, then, the constitutional division of ten tribes.[3] Given these, the proper course, I say, is to appoint, with the concurrence of the several phylarchs, certain decadarchs (file-leaders)[4] to be selected from the men ripest of age and strength, most eager to achieve some deed of honour and to be known to fame. These are to form your front-rank men;[5] and after these, a corresponding number should be chosen from the oldest and the most sagacious members of the squadron, to form the rear-rank of the files or decads; since, to use an illustration, iron best severs iron when the forefront of the blade[6] is strong and tempered, and the momentum at the back is sufficient.

[3] See 'Revenues,' iv. 30.

[4] Decadarchs, lit. commanders of ten, a 'file' consisting normally

(or ideally) of ten men. Cf. 'Cyrop. II. ii. 30; VIII. i. 14. It

will be borne in mind that a body of cavalry would, as a rule, be

drawn up in battle line at least four deep (see 'Hell.' III. iv.

13), and frequently much deeper. (The Persian cavalry in the

engagement just referred to were twelve deep.)

[5] See 'Cyrop.' III. iii. 41, 57; VI. iii. 24, 27; VII. i. 15; 'Pol.

Lac.' xi. 5. These front-rank men would seem to correspond to our

'troop guides,' and the rear-rank men to our serre-files to some


[6] Cf. Aelian Tact. 26, ap. Courier.

The interval between the front and rear-rank men will best be filled supposing that the decadarchs are free to choose their own supports, and those chosen theirs, and so on following suit; since on this principle we may expect each man to have his trustiest comrade at his back.

As to your lieutenant,[7] it is every way important to appoint a good man to this post, whose bravery will tell; and in case of need at any time to charge the enemy, the cheering accents of his voice will infuse strength into those in front; or when the critical moment of retreat arrives, his sage conduct in retiring will go far, we may well conclude, towards saving his division.[8]

[7] {ton aphegoumenon}, lit. 'him who leads back' (a function which

would devolve upon the {ouragos} under many circumstances). Cf.

'Cyrop.' II. iii. 21; 'Hell.' IV. viii. 37; Plat. 'Laws,' 760 D. =

our 'officer serre-file,' to some extent. So Courier: 'Celui qui

commande en serre-file. C'est chez nous le capitaine en second.'

[8] Or, 'the rest of the squadron.' Lit. 'his own tribesmen.'

An even number of file-leaders will admit of a greater number of equal subdivisions than an odd.

The above formation pleases me for two good reasons: in the first place, all the front-rank men are forced to act as officers;[9] and the same man, mark you, when in command is somehow apt to feel that deeds of valour are incumbent on him which, as a private, he ignores; and in the next place, at a crisis when something calls for action on the instant, the word of command passed not to privates but to officers takes speedier effect.

[9] i.e. all find themselves in a position of command, and there is

nothing like command to inspire that feeling of noblesse oblige

which is often lacking in the private soldier. See Thuc. v. 66;

'Pol. Lac.' xi. 5.

Supposing, then, a regiment of cavalry drawn up in this formation: just as the squadron-leaders have their several positions for the march (or the attack[10]) assigned them by the commander, so the file- leaders will depend upon the captain for the order passed along the line in what formation they are severally to march; and all being prearranged by word of mouth, the whole will work more smoothly than if left to chance-like people crowding out of a theatre to their mutual annoyance. And when it comes to actual encounter greater promptitude will be displayed: supposing the attack is made in front, by the file-leaders who know that this is their appointed post; or in case of danger suddenly appearing in rear, then by the rear-rank men, whose main idea is that to desert one's post is base. A want of orderly arrangement, on the contrary, leads to confusion worse confounded at every narrow road, at every passage of a river; and when it comes to fighting, no one of his own free will assigns himself his proper post in face of an enemey.

[10] Lit. 'where to ride,' i.e. in what formation whether on the line

of march or in action.

The above are fundamental matters not to be performed without the active help of every trooper who would wish to be a zealous and unhesitating fellow-worker with his officer.[11]

[11] Cf. 'Hiero,' vii. 2; 'Cyrop.' II. iv. 10.


I come at length to certain duties which devolve upon the general of cavalry himself in person: and first and foremost, it concerns him to obtain the favour of the gods by sacrifices in behalf of the state cavalry; and in the next place to make the great procession at the festivals a spectacle worth seeing; and further, with regard to all those public shows demanded by the state, wherever held,[1] whether in the grounds of the Acadamy or the Lyceum, at Phaleron or within the hippodrome, it is his business as commander of the knights to see that every pageant of the sort is splendidly exhibited.

[1] Cf. Theophr. 'Ch.' vii. (Jebb ad loc. p. 204, n. 25).

But these, again, are memoranda.[2] To the question how the several features of the pageant shall receive their due impress of beauty, I will now address myself.

[2] Read {tauta men alla upomnemata}, or if with Pantazid. {apla},

trans. 'these are simply memoranda.'

And first to speak of the Processions.[3] These will, I think, be rendered most acceptable to Heaven and to earth's spectators were the riders to ride round the Agora and temples, commencing from the Hermae, and pay honour to the sacred beings, each in turn, whose shrines and statues are there congregated. (Thus in the great Dionysia[4] the choruses embrace their gracious service to the other gods and to the Twelve with circling dance.

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